Cogeneration Power Plants Performance & Enhancement

 “Cogeneration Power Plants: Performance & Enhancement”


General Description:

Four power plants with a total installed capacity of over 2000 MW are owned by one of Bahrain’s largest power producing companies. One of the power plants uses a mixed cycle with five gas turbines and one steam turbine. They recently upgraded the steam turbine unit by installing a new feedwater heater, and they want to explore how it affects the thermal efficiency of the entire plant. The steam turbine was last upgraded a decade ago, and the manager must present the new steam turbine system and demonstrate that the plant update was successful with all relevant information.

Your Role:

Consider any appropriate and relevant power plant of this type in Bahrain, and conduct some research on many technical characteristics available for this analysis. After graduating from Bahrain Polytechnic with a degree in Mechanical Engineering, you will be given the opportunity to work as an engineer for this company. Your line manager will assign this case study to you as a trainee to analyze the scenario of upgrading the existing system to a new cogeneration power plant that generates power using a combination of the Rankine cycle and the Brayton cycle. It would be really appreciated if you could provide a new design for the entire system in order to increase the plant’s efficiency.

The following are the two stages of analysis in this case study:

  1. You must analyze and enhance the existing power plant by adding feedwater pumps and feedwater heaters; and
  2. You must design a cogeneration power plant by upgrading the above system designed in stage-1 and adding a Brayton cycle;

Figure 1: Cogeneration Power plant

Cogeneration Power Plant:

One of the future new communities in Bahrain that is currently under development plans utilise process heating and generate electricity for the community. Cogeneration, in general, is a process that produces multiple useful forms of energy from a single energy source. As a result, any power plant that uses this method is known as a Cogeneration Power Plant (CPP) or a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant. Due to unusual changes, such as quick increases in fuel prices and the potential energy-efficiency of the Process Heating System, the usage of process heat is on the rise in many nations (PHS). This case study aims to analyze a Cogeneration Power Plant, which generates both process heat and electric power from a single energy source. In a cogeneration power plant, the power cycle can be a Rankine cycle, a Brayton cycle, or a combination of the two. The utilization factor of a cogeneration power plant is defined as the fraction of energy used for either process heat or power generation, as shown in the following equation. Figure 2 depicts a typical steam turbine in use at this cogeneration plant right now.


 Figure 2: Model steam turbine for combined power cycle

Technical information given:

The following information was provided by the responsible engineer of that power plant regarding the steam cycle part:

 tonnes per hour of superheated steam enters the high-pressure turbine at oC and  Bar, and is discharged isentropically until the pressure reaches  Bar. After exiting the high-pressure turbine,  tonnes per hour of steam is extracted to the open feedwater heater, and the remaining steam flows to the low-pressure turbine, where it expands to  Bar. At the condenser, the steam is totally condensed. The temperature at the condenser’s outflow is the same as the saturation temperature at the same pressure. The liquid is compressed to  Bar after passing through the condenser and then allowed to flow through the mixing preheater (a heat exchanger with efficiency )where it is completely condensed. The preheated feed water will be fed into the heat exchanger through a second feed pump, where it will be heated and superheated to a temperature of oC. In the winter, the overall process heating demand is assumed to be  MW while this power plant’s electricity demand is MW.

Data to be taken for the analysis:

Assume any value in the range provided in the following parameter against the parameter:

Parameter Value range
10 to 15 (step of 1)
1.0 to 1.5 (step of 0.1)
450 to 550 (step of 10)
20 to 30 (step of 2)
4 to 6 (step of 0.5)
0.4 to 1.0 (step of 0.1)
82% to 88% (step of 1)
1.2 MW to 2.2 MW (step of 0.2)
5.5 MW to 6.5 MW (step of 0.25)

Assessment Details

  • Assessment Type :               Practical Project
  • Weighting :               40% of the final grade
  • Late rule :               Applied
  • Type :               Individual assessment
  • Submission details :               Soft Copy onto Moodle
  • Due Date :               Thursday, 26-May-2022 16:00 hrs.
  • Re-Sit rule :               NO
  • MUST Pass :               NO
  • Learning Outcomes Assessed :               1,2, 3, 4

Project Report layout and Marking schedule (40%)

You must prepare a report, that include the following, with the analysis of the existing power plant and provide new design for its performance upgradation.:

  1. Summary: The summary must include a description of the project and its important aspects, as well as the problem to be solved, the reasons for choosing this project, the methodology to be used, the main findings, and brief conclusions. (Maximum 200 words or 1 page)
  2. Assumptions: The important technical assumptions that must be made in this analysis should be identified, analyzed, and documented here, encompassing all technological backgrounds. (Maximum 150 words or 1 page)
  3. Introduction: This section of the report must include a clear summary of the project’s background information; a literature review (a collection of relevant material to the project; your approach must be summarized at the end of this review); and the project’s goals and objectives. Proper citation should be provided to the reference. (Maximum of 300 words or two pages)
  4. Theoretical aspects and analysis: This section contains a technical description of the Power Station you chose for this analysis, including the design technique adopted, the characteristics of the power cycle, the methodology, the plant’s capacity, and current efficiency, as well as all other theoretical issues. (Maximum of 400 words or two pages)
  5. Schematic of the power plant: An excellent and high-quality schematic must be presented, with all necessary and appropriate information pertinent to the analysis’ content. Any diagramming and vector graphics application, such as Microsoft Visio, can be used. (Maximum 1 page)
  6. Property diagrams: Clear diagrams based on various properties such as pressure-volume and temperature-entropy should be provided. These diagrams should incorporate all of the necessary and relevant data. (Maximum 1 Page each)
  7. Results and discussion: This section of the report must include all of the project’s findings, including all of the results, specific methodology, calculations for various parameters in every step of the steam cycle, including the quantity of feed water required in the cycle, the combined cycle plant’s utilization factor, and overall cycle thermal efficiency, designs, and so on (describe if the findings support the original objectives). Discuss whether the cycle’s thermal efficiency is adequate, as well as the steam cycle’s overall operation. (Maximum of 800 words or three pages)
  8. Conclusions and recommendations: The project’s conclusion should summarize all of the report’s important points. This section should also include any ideas or proposals for future modifications and enhancements to the above steam cycle, as well as any other power cycles in the Kingdom. Remember to include the cost parameter as well. (Maximum of 400 words or two pages)
  9. Analysis of the technical difficulties: In this section of the report, which covers all of the project’s necessary features, a very detailed analysis of any technical challenges should be included. (Maximum of 200 words or 1 page)
  10. Use of high-quality references: Include a list of all the high-quality references that came up during this analysis. (no limit but mandatory)
  11. Appendices (if necessary): Further details of results, mathematical derivations, and portions of program code that was developed, if any, can be presented in this section. (no limit)

LO-wise evaluation criteria:

Component LO-1 LO-2 LO-3 LO-4
Summary (Max: 5 marks for each LO)        
Assumptions (Max: 5 marks for each LO)        
Introduction (Max: 10 marks for each LO)        
Theoretical Aspects & Analysis (Max: 20 marks for each LO)        
Schematic of the power plant (Max: 5 marks for each LO)        
Property Diagrams (Max: 5 marks for each LO)        
Results & Discussion (Max: 20 marks for each LO)        
Conclusions & Recommendations (Max: 10 marks for each LO)        
Analysis of the Technical Difficulties (Max: 10 marks for each LO)        
Use of high-quality references (Max: 10 marks for each LO)        
LO-wise total marks obtained:        
Maximum Marks per LO: 100 100 100 100
Total obtained marks:  


Range A B C D
5% 5.0 – 4.5 4.0 – 3.0 2.5 – 1.5 1.0 – 0.0
10% 10.0 – 8.5 8.0 – 7.0 6.5 – 6.0 5.0 – 0.0
20% 20.0 – 18.0 17.0 – 11.0 10.0 – 6.0 5.0 – 0.0


EN8912 Applied Thermodynamics Project Rubric 2021B (40% of Final Grade)
Task A B C D
1 Summary

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 5%

Specific and detailed description of the project; All the main objectives, findings and conclusions identified very clearly; All the main industrial applications of the project are presented; Description of project with some detail; Most of the main objectives, findings, conclusions and industrial applications identified very clearly; Lacks detail; Some reference to the main objectives, findings and conclusions; Only a few industrial applications of the project are presented; Description incomplete with little or no detail; Little or no reference to objectives, findings and conclusions; Poor reference to industrial application;
2 Assumptions

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 5%

Not only identifies and evaluates all the important assumptions, but also some of the more hidden and abstract ones; Identifies and evaluates all the important assumptions, but not the ones deeper in the background – the more abstract ones; Identifies some of the most important assumptions but does not evaluate them for plausibility or clarity; Fails to identify and evaluate any of the important assumptions behind the claims and recommendations made;
3 Introduction

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 10%

Clearly indicates the main purpose of the project and a summary of the report, so the reader can anticipate the text that will follow; Narrative integrates critical and logical details from the peer-reviewed theoretical and research literature; Adequately indicates the main purpose of the project and a summary of the report; Key constructs and variables were connected to relevant, reliable theoretical and research literature; Although a research issue is identified, the statement is too broad or the description fails to establish the importance of the problem area; Connections to the literature are unclear or limited; Statement of the problem, significance, definitions were omitted or inappropriate; The reader cannot anticipate the text that will follow; The review of literature was missing or consisted of non-research-based articles;
4 Theoretical Aspects & Analysis

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 20%

Detailed and specific analysis of the problem; Well-developed main points directly related to the project; Clearly indicates the methodology steps and requirements with details; Adequately analyzes the problem and indicates the methodology steps and requirements; Most of the main points are related to the project; Detailed and specific analysis of the project; Well-developed main points directly related to the project; Clearly indicates the methodology steps and requirements with details; Poor development of ideas; Little or no reference to methodology steps and requirements of the project;


5 Schematic of the Plant

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 5%

A very good and excellent quality schematic shown with all the required and appropriate information data relevant to the content; An adequate schematic has been shown including all the required and appropriate information data relevant to the content; Schematic provided is somewhat effective that includes only data relevant to the content; No schematic has been shown;
6 Property Diagrams

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 5%

A very clear diagrams have been shown including all the required and appropriate information data; Adequate diagrams have been shown including all the required and appropriate information data relevant to the content; Diagrams provided are somewhat effective that include only data relevant to the content; No diagram has been shown;
7 Results and Discussion

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 20%

All information is accurately reported using appropriate terminology/graphs/tables etc.; Analysis of results is clearly explained, and demonstrates superior understanding of the project; Well organized / presented; The analysis of results is adequately explained; All information is reported using appropriate terminology/graphs/tables etc.; Well organized and properly formatted and error free; Results partly answer the project tasks; Only a few information is reported using appropriate terminology/graphs/tables etc.; Some degree of organization; Proper formatting and relatively error free; Incorrect or no information on appropriate terminology/graphs/tables etc. provided; Analysis of results is poorly discussed; Poor organization and formatting;
8 Conclusions and Recommendations

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 10%

The conclusions are clearly stated, highlight all the main points made throughout the report and consistent with the evidence presented; Most of the suggestions and recommendations provided are very clear; The conclusions are clearly stated, highlight all the main points made throughout the report and consistent enough with the evidence presented; Most of the suggestions and recommendations provided are adequate; Only some conclusions highlight only a few main points of the report and are consistent with the evidence presented; Only some recommendations and suggestions are consistent with the evidence presented; Incomplete conclusions; No or poor suggestions or recommendations for future activities presented;
9 Analysis of the Technical Difficulties

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 10%

Detailed and specific analysis with well-developed points on technical difficulties have been presented and directly related to the case study; Adequately analyzes the technical difficulties; Most of the main points and references are covered; The analysis of the technical difficulties was incomplete; Only some reference provided; Incomplete or no detailed and specific analysis on technical difficulties has been presented;
10 Use of High-Quality References

[LO: 1,2,3,4] 10%

Compelling evidence from professionally legitimate sources is given to support claims; Attribution is clear and fairly represented; References are primarily peer reviewed professional journals or other approved sources; Professionally legitimate sources that support claims are generally present; Attribution is, for the most part, clear and fairly represented; Although most of the references are professionally legitimate, a few are questionable; Although attributions are occasionally given, many statements seem unsubstantiated; Most of the references are from sources that are not peer reviewed and have uncertain reliability; The reader is confused about the source of information and ideas; References are seldom cited to support statements; There are virtually no sources that are professionally reliable;


Weightings per LO LO–1 (Max: 100) LO–2 (Max: 100) LO–3 (Max: 100) LO–4 (Max: 100) Total (Max: 400)
Marks per LO          
Total (Max: 40)  
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